The road from Galwan, a year later(The Hindu, GS-2, International relations)

Context:- On June 15 , 2020 , the Line of Actual Control (LAC) witnessed its first deaths after 1975.when 20 Indian soldiers had a violent clash with China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA). Top of that details about the violent incident have not been officially made public till now.

Issues after Ladakh incident on political front:-

  • Government didn’t brief about the incident through the press conferences.
  • Government always stayed away from any scrutiny, either by media or by the opposition.
  • When there was an all party meet, P.M. remarks were also not about briefing, rather misrepresenting.
  • Government’s political strategy for dealing with the Ladakh border crisis has been based on dodging, denial and digression, this strategy did not give fruitful results rather gave a low to India’s stature in the neighbourhood.
  •  There is no record of a meeting of Cabinet Committee on Security being convened to discuss the Ladakh border situation.

What is current military situation in ladakh:-

  • There is a Chinese presence on the Indian side of the LAC in Gogra, Hot Springs and Demchok gives the PLA.
  • But the major issue is Chinese control of Depsang Plains.
  • The Indian Army has only weakened its negotiating position during the talks with the PLA.
  • This Ladakh crisis has also exposed India’s military weakness to tackle a collusive threat from both China and Pakistan.

How is India rebalancing china?

  • Indian government is looking for external partnerships such as QUAD.
  • India is countering the burgeoning Chinese influence in the neighbourhood, But it has faltered because of exacerbated by the mishandling of the second wave

Challenges between india and china:-

  • Border dispute in eastern and western sectors:- This issue is of McMahon Line, Mc Mahon line is the boundary between india and china. India accepts this but China doesn’t accept this because this line was accepted by Tibet during negotiations between India and Tibet. According to China, Tibet was not  sovereign country, so it doesn’t have authority to negotiate.
  • Issue of Dalai Lama:- There are more than 1,00,000 Tibetans refugees in India and India’s continued willingness to provide shelter to the Dalai Lama is a continued source of irritation in China-India relations.
  • Nuclear supplier Group (NSG):-  india wants entry to NSG which is blocked by china.
  • The Indian Army had asked the PLA to stop the road construction activity that has resulted in a stand-off.
  • Neighbourhood ties:- China is strengthening its trade and defence ties with countries which are strategically important to India, it poses security threats to India.
  • China displaced the U.S. to be India’s biggest trade partner in 2020­-21 and on other hand we are making a huge cry for not buying chinese products.
  • Competition and cooperation can’t go hand in hand.
  • Indian military’s failure on Chinese incursions in Ladakh have shown that the idea of deterrence has failed.

Way forward:-

  •  learn from the American experience of implementing the Multi Domain Operations (MDO) doctrine to wage a war of the future against a technologically superior PLA. 
  • New Delhi has to learnt that india can no longer have simultaneous competition and cooperation with Beijing.
  • India needs to relook the SAARC process in order to secure historical affinity with its neighbours.

Extra for Prelims and titbits:-

Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG):-

  • A group of nuclear material and technology supplier countries that seeks to contribute to the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons .
  • It was set up as a response to India’s nuclear tests (Smiling Biddha) conducted in 1974.
  • The Aim of this group is to:- Trade of nuclear material for peaceful purposes so that proliferation of nuclear weapons should not happen.
  • There are 48 participating governments and the European Commission acts as an Observer.

Pelindaba Treaty (African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty):-

  • It has created a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Africa.
  • The treaty was signed in 1996 with the effect in July 2009.
  • The aim is to prevent nuclear proliferation and prevent strategic minerals of Africa from being exported freely.
  • This treaty prohibits member parties to come into bilateral agreement with countries who are non signatories of NPT (Nuclear non-proliferation treaty)

What is QUAD:-

  • informal strategic dialogue between India, USA, Japan and Australia.
  • The Idea was  first mooted by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in 2007.
  • The main aim of this group is free, open and prosperous” Indo-Pacific region.

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