Zarya: first module of the International Space Station to have been launched (GS Paper III : Science and Technology)

Context : Today is the 24 th anniversary of the Zyra (A module launched to the international space station on 20 November 1998). This was the milestone in the field of the development of Space research 

What is Zarya

  • Technically the Zarya is also known as Functional Cargo Block  and the Russian acronym FGB (Functional Cargo Block) 

  • This cargo was funded by the USA but designed and built by Russia .

  • The meaning of this term Zarya is Sunrise fich means a hope for the research of space . This cargo reached its ovebit with in two weeks 

Features of Zarya 

  • it was the, first  act of the ISS Program in which a shuttle was  assembled

  • The mass of Zarya is 19323 kg 

  • This was launched by a three-stage Proton rocket

  • It was launched  from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan.

  • Its launch marked the beginning of an international venture of unprecedented scale.

  • It has solar arrays and 6 nickel-cadmium batteries so that it could get sufficient energy of  3 kilowatts of electrical power.

  • Each of the two solar arrays was 11 m long and 3 m wide. 

  • It  would perform an automated and remotely piloted rendezvous and docking with the Service Module in orbit. 

  • Later, this module was modified so that it could be refueled by a Progress vehicle docked to its down-facing port if necessary.

  • It was launched to its orbit at an altitude of about 390 km,

  • This module had 16 fuel tanks in which  more than 6 metric tons of propellant can be there 

  • It had  24 large steering jets and 12 small steering jets.

  • There are two large engines so that it could reboost the spacecraft and make major orbital changes.

Idea of Space Station

  • Before the second world war the idea of a space centre was just a fiction, but during the second world war , science and technology progressed rapidly. 

  • The USSR and USA both were rapidly involved in the research of space technology . After the second world war, Russia invested huge money in the field of Space research . 

  • The first rudimentary station was created in 1969 by the linking of two Russian Soyuz vehicles in space but it was incomplete before the Zarya

  • Until recently, U.S. research space onboard the ISS had been reserved for mostly government initiatives, but new opportunities for commercial and academic use of the ISS are now available, facilitated by the ISS National Lab.

  • In this process of Space research some astronauts were also sent to space in 2000 and Astronaut Bill Shepherd and Yuri Gidzenco and sergei were sent to space as the first crew to reside in this space centre and they stayed in that space centre for several months 

Conclusively, this date of 20th november is a very important date in the field of the development of Space research for Russia. First time America and Russia came together for any sace research . 

Definitely , in the field of science, such research would be beneficial in the development of human beings. After the second world war the tendency of Space research had been increased , therefore we observe drastic and revolutionary change  in the field of information technology 

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